The Empress Tarot Card Meaning

Among the 78 cards in a traditional tarot deck, 22 are known as the Major Arcana. These cards represent significant life events, spiritual lessons, and the various stages of personal development. And within this group lies “The Empress” – a card of fertility, nurturing, and abundance. As the third card in the Major Arcana, “The Empress” embodies the essence of motherhood, creativity, and the natural world. Her presence in a reading often heralds a time of growth, prosperity, and the flourishing of ideas and relationships.

In this article, we will delve deep into the symbolism, history, and interpretations of “The Empress” tarot card, shedding light on its profound significance in the world of tarot.

 

Historical Background

The rich tapestry of tarot history is woven with tales of mysticism, art, and cultural evolution. At the heart of this history is “The Empress”, a card that has seen a significant transformation in its imagery and symbolism over the centuries.

The Empress Tarot Card

Origins and History of “The Empress” Card in Tarot Decks

The origins of “The Empress” card can be traced back to the earliest tarot decks of the 15th century. Initially known as “L’Imperatrice” in Italian decks, this card was not originally associated with divination but was rather a part of card games like Tarocchi. The Empress, in these early decks, was often depicted as a woman of power and authority, sometimes holding a shield or orb, symbolising her dominion over a realm.

It wasn’t until the late 18th century, with the rise of occultism and esoteric traditions, that “The Empress” began to take on a more spiritual and symbolic meaning. Influential tarot scholars and mystics of the time, such as Antoine Court de Gébelin and Eliphas Levi, began to associate the card with concepts of fertility, nurturing, and the divine feminine.

Evolution of its Imagery and Symbolism Over Time

As tarot decks evolved and diversified, so did the imagery of “The Empress”. Early representations often portrayed her as a regal figure, seated on a throne, embodying the power and authority of a ruler. However, as the tarot became more intertwined with spiritual and esoteric traditions, the imagery of “The Empress” began to shift.

By the 19th and 20th centuries, especially with the creation of the Rider-Waite-Smith deck, “The Empress” was often depicted surrounded by symbols of fertility and nature. The golden wheat at her feet, the lush forest behind her, and the flowing river in the distance all became emblematic of her connection to the Earth and her nurturing qualities. The addition of the Venus symbol on her shield further solidified her association with love, beauty, and creativity.

Today, “The Empress” continues to be a symbol of abundance, nurturing, and the cyclical nature of life. Modern decks may offer varied interpretations, from a motherly figure to a goddess of nature, but the core essence of “The Empress” remains consistent: a beacon of creation, growth, and unconditional love.

 

Card Imagery and Symbolism

The imagery of “The Empress” is a rich tapestry of symbols, each meticulously chosen to convey the card’s profound meanings. The card’s visual elements not only captivate the eye but also speak to the soul, offering layers of interpretation that resonate with both novice and seasoned tarot readers.

Detailed Description of the Card’s Imagery

At the centre of the card sits “The Empress” herself, often depicted as a mature woman exuding an aura of grace and authority. She is seated comfortably on a luxurious throne, adorned with plush cushions, symbolising her dominion over the material realm. Her posture is relaxed, yet regal, indicating her effortless command over her domain.

Her attire is typically a flowing gown, often in shades of red or pomegranate, hinting at her fertility and connection to the cycles of life. A crown, usually made up of twelve stars, rests on her head, representing her spiritual authority and her connection to the celestial realm.

Behind “The Empress”, one can often see a verdant forest, teeming with life, and a gently flowing river, signifying the life-giving properties of water. The sky above is clear, suggesting harmony and balance in her world.

Explanation of Key Symbols Present on the Card and Their Meanings

  1. The Crown of Twelve Stars: This crown signifies her spiritual dominion and her alignment with cosmic energies. The twelve stars can be associated with the twelve zodiac signs, indicating her universal appeal and influence.
  2. The Venus Symbol: Often seen on a heart-shaped shield that “The Empress” holds or on her gown, this symbol represents love, beauty, and fertility. It solidifies her connection to the goddess Venus and her dominion over matters of the heart.
  3. Wheat: At her feet, stalks of wheat are commonly depicted, symbolising abundance, harvest, and the fruits of one’s labour. It’s a nod to her nurturing nature and her ability to foster growth and prosperity.
  4. The Forest and River: These natural elements underscore her deep connection to the Earth and the natural cycles of life. The forest represents growth, mystery, and shelter, while the river embodies emotions, intuition, and the flow of life.
  5. Pomegranate Pattern on her Gown: If present, this symbolises fertility and the cycle of life and death. In many cultures, the pomegranate is a symbol of the divine feminine and the mysteries of creation.
  6. The Throne: Her seat of power, often adorned with symbols of hearts or other emblems, represents her authority in both the material and spiritual realms.

In essence, the imagery and symbolism of “The Empress” card weave a narrative of power, nurturing, and the interconnectedness of life. She is both a ruler and a mother, a symbol of authority and love, making her one of the most multifaceted cards in the tarot deck.

 

Upright Meaning

When “The Empress” graces a tarot reading in her upright position, she brings with her a powerful message of growth, abundance, and maternal energy. This card, with its lush imagery and profound symbolism, speaks to the heart, urging one to embrace the nurturing forces within and around them.

Explanation of the Card’s Meaning When Drawn in the Upright Position

In its upright position, “The Empress” is a beacon of creation and nurturing. She signifies a period where one’s efforts are bearing fruit, where projects or endeavours are thriving, and where there’s a strong sense of stability and abundance. This card often appears when one is in a phase of personal or professional growth, reaping the rewards of past efforts and feeling a deep connection to the world around them.

Furthermore, “The Empress” in her upright glory embodies the essence of motherhood, not just in the literal sense but also metaphorically. She may indicate a time of nurturing ideas, relationships, or even oneself. Her presence suggests a period of comfort, care, and unconditional love.

Insights into its Positive Connotations and Associations

  1. Fertility and Creation: Whether it’s the birth of a child, a new project, or a fresh phase in life, “The Empress” heralds a time of creation and new beginnings.
  2. Abundance and Prosperity: Financial gains, career advancements, or simply a period of plenty and satisfaction are indicated by this card.
  3. Nurturing and Care: This could be a phase where you find yourself taking care of others or, importantly, focusing on self-care and personal growth.
  4. Connection to Nature: A deeper understanding or appreciation of the natural world, or even a suggestion to spend more time outdoors and reconnect with the Earth.
  5. Sensuality and Pleasure: Embracing life’s pleasures, indulging in the senses, and celebrating beauty in all its forms.
  6. Intuition and Emotional Well-being: Trusting one’s instincts, feeling emotionally balanced, and being in tune with one’s feelings and desires.

In conclusion, when “The Empress” appears upright in a reading, it’s a resounding affirmation of life’s blessings and the nurturing energies at play. She encourages one to embrace abundance, to nurture and be nurtured, and to celebrate the beauty and fertility of life.

 

Reversed Meaning

While “The Empress” in her upright position exudes nurturing, abundance, and creation, her energy shifts when reversed. The reversed Empress can bring to light areas in one’s life where there may be over-nurturing, dependence, or a lack of growth and abundance. It’s a call to re-evaluate and find balance.

Explanation of the Card’s Meaning When Drawn in the Reversed Position

When “The Empress” appears reversed in a tarot reading, it suggests a potential disconnect from one’s nurturing side or a possible imbalance in giving and receiving care. It might indicate a period where one feels stifled creatively or faces challenges in manifesting their desires. This card, in its inverted state, can also point to issues related to motherhood, fertility, or personal relationships.

It’s essential to approach the reversed Empress as a gentle nudge rather than a stern warning. She encourages introspection, urging one to address areas of neglect, whether it’s self-care or tending to relationships and projects.

Insights into its Negative or Alternative Connotations and Associations

  1. Over-Nurturing: This can manifest as smothering behaviour, where one might be giving too much of themselves to others, leading to feelings of exhaustion or being taken for granted.
  2. Neglect of Self: Ignoring one’s needs, especially in terms of self-care and self-love, can lead to burnout and emotional drain.
  3. Stagnation: A lack of growth or progress in certain areas of life, be it personal projects, relationships, or career aspirations.
  4. Dependency: Relying too heavily on others for emotional or financial support, leading to imbalance in relationships.
  5. Fertility Issues: For those trying to conceive or facing challenges related to motherhood, the reversed Empress might highlight these concerns.
  6. Blocked Creativity: Feeling uninspired or facing obstacles in expressing oneself creatively.
  7. Material Concerns: Potential financial setbacks or a period of feeling that resources are scarce.

In essence, the reversed Empress serves as a mirror, reflecting areas of one’s life that might need attention, nurturing, or rebalancing. While she may highlight challenges, she also offers the promise of growth and renewal once these issues are addressed.

 

The Empress in Love and Relationships

In the realm of love and relationships, “The Empress” is a powerful symbol of nurturing, passion, and deep emotional connection. Her presence in a love reading can offer profound insights, whether you’re single and searching or deeply entrenched in a committed relationship.

Interpretation of “The Empress” in the Context of Love Readings

When “The Empress” graces a love reading, she brings with her the energies of unconditional love, sensuality, and a deep bond with a partner. She embodies the qualities of a loving mother, a passionate lover, and a caring friend, all rolled into one. Her energy is one of giving and receiving love in abundance, suggesting a phase of emotional fulfilment and romantic prosperity.

For those in relationships, “The Empress” is a positive sign, indicating a period of harmony, mutual respect, and deep emotional bonding. It could also hint at a time of increased intimacy or even the possibility of pregnancy for couples trying to conceive.

For singles, her presence suggests that love is on the horizon. It might be the time when one attracts a partner who appreciates and reciprocates their love and care. Alternatively, it could also indicate a period of self-love and personal growth, preparing oneself for future romantic endeavours.

Insights into What it Might Mean for Singles and Those in Relationships

  1. For Singles:
    • New Love: “The Empress” can herald the beginning of a new, passionate romance.
    • Self-Love: Before seeking love externally, there might be a need to nurture and love oneself, ensuring emotional well-being and self-worth.
    • Fertility: For those looking to start a family, this card can indicate favourable conditions for conception or adoption.
  2. For Those in Relationships:
    • Deepening Bonds: A phase where the relationship grows stronger, marked by mutual understanding and emotional connection.
    • Nurturing Each Other: It might be a time to focus on taking care of each other, ensuring both partners feel valued and loved.
    • Potential for Growth: This could be in the form of taking the next step, be it marriage, moving in together, or starting a family.
    • Reigniting Passion: For couples who might have felt a lull in their romantic life, “The Empress” suggests reigniting the spark and embracing sensuality.

“The Empress” in the context of love and relationships is a beacon of hope, love, and nurturing. She encourages one to embrace love in all its forms, be it romantic, platonic, or self-love, and to cherish the bonds that bring joy and fulfilment.

 

The Empress in Career and Finances

In the intricate dance of career and finances, “The Empress” emerges as a symbol of abundance, creativity, and growth. Her presence in a reading related to work or money often brings positive tidings, suggesting prosperity, innovation, and a nurturing work environment.

Interpretation of “The Empress” in the Context of Career and Financial Readings

When “The Empress” appears in a career reading, she often signifies a period of professional growth and creativity. This could manifest as a new job opportunity, a promotion, or even the birth of a business idea. Her energy is one of nurturing, indicating that one’s efforts in the workplace are not only recognised but also rewarded.

In financial readings, “The Empress” is a harbinger of abundance. She suggests a phase where financial worries are alleviated, and there’s a steady flow of income. This could be due to wise investments, a pay raise, or unexpected financial gains.

Guidance on What it Might Suggest About Work, Business, and Financial Prospects

  1. Work and Career:
    • Creative Projects: Now might be the time to embark on creative endeavours or projects that require innovative thinking.
    • Recognition: Your efforts at work could be acknowledged, leading to promotions or new opportunities.
    • Nurturing Environment: A period where the workplace feels supportive, encouraging growth and learning.
    • Entrepreneurship: For those considering starting their own venture, “The Empress” suggests favourable conditions for its inception and growth.
  2. Business:
    • Expansion: Businesses might see a period of growth, potentially expanding into new markets or launching new products.
    • Partnerships: Collaborations or partnerships formed during this time are likely to be fruitful and harmonious.
    • Investment in Resources: It might be a good time to invest in resources, be it human resources or tools, to further business growth.
  3. Financial Prospects:
    • Abundance: A phase of financial stability and growth, where income sources are robust.
    • Wise Investments: Any investments made, be it in stocks, property, or other ventures, are likely to yield positive returns.
    • Unexpected Gains: There could be unexpected financial gains, like bonuses, gifts, or other windfalls.

“The Empress” in the context of career and finances is a symbol of prosperity, growth, and abundance. She encourages one to embrace opportunities, nurture creative ideas, and trust in the abundance of the universe to provide and support.

 

The Empress in Health and Well-being

In the realm of health and well-being, “The Empress” shines as a beacon of nurturing, growth, and rejuvenation. Her energy resonates with the natural rhythms of the body and mind, suggesting a period of healing, balance, and overall well-being.

Interpretation of “The Empress” in the Context of Health and Well-being Readings

When “The Empress” graces a health reading, she often brings tidings of healing and rejuvenation. Her connection to the Earth and natural cycles suggests a return to balance, whether it’s recovering from an illness, finding emotional equilibrium, or embracing a healthier lifestyle.

Her presence can indicate a time where one’s physical health is on the upswing, where the body is receptive to healing energies, and where there’s a renewed sense of vitality. On a mental and emotional level, “The Empress” hints at a period of clarity, emotional nourishment, and psychological growth.

Suggestions on What it Might Indicate About Physical and Mental Health

  1. Physical Health:
    • Recovery: If one has been battling health issues, “The Empress” suggests a period of healing and recovery.
    • Fertility: For those trying to conceive or facing reproductive health concerns, this card brings positive energies and a potential for good news.
    • Embracing Nature: A nudge to connect with nature, perhaps through outdoor activities, to enhance physical well-being.
    • Diet and Nutrition: A period where the body benefits from nutritious foods, hinting at the importance of a balanced diet.
  2. Mental Health:
    • Emotional Nourishment: A phase of emotional healing, where one feels supported and nurtured.
    • Clarity: Overcoming periods of confusion or mental fog, leading to clearer thinking and decision-making.
    • Self-care: The importance of taking time for oneself, indulging in activities that bring joy and relaxation.
    • Therapeutic Activities: Engaging in activities like meditation, journaling, or therapy can be beneficial during this time.
  3. Spiritual Well-being:
    • Connection to the Earth: A deeper spiritual connection to nature and the universe, leading to inner peace and harmony.
    • Intuitive Growth: Trusting one’s intuition and inner guidance, leading to spiritual growth and enlightenment.

“The Empress” in the context of health and well-being is a gentle reminder of the body’s natural ability to heal and the mind’s resilience. She encourages one to nurture oneself, to seek balance in all aspects of health, and to trust in the healing powers of nature and the universe.

 

Key Takeaways

“The Empress” tarot card, with its rich symbolism and profound meanings, offers a multifaceted glimpse into various aspects of life. As we’ve journeyed through the depths of this card’s interpretations, several key insights emerge:

  1. Historical Significance: From its origins in early European tarot decks to its evolution as a spiritual and divinatory tool, “The Empress” has undergone significant transformations, reflecting cultural and esoteric shifts over the centuries.
  2. Rich Imagery: The card’s visual elements, from the crown of twelve stars to the verdant landscapes, weave a narrative of power, nurturing, and the cyclical nature of life.
  3. Upright Interpretations: In its upright position, “The Empress” heralds a period of growth, abundance, and nurturing. Whether in love, career, or personal endeavours, her presence suggests prosperity and deep emotional connections.
  4. Reversed Insights: When reversed, the card nudges introspection, highlighting areas that might need rebalancing, be it in relationships, personal well-being, or creative pursuits.
  5. Love and Relationships: “The Empress” in love readings signifies deep emotional bonds, potential new romances, and the nurturing aspects of relationships.
  6. Career and Finances: In the professional realm, she indicates growth, creativity, and potential financial abundance.
  7. Health and Well-being: Her energy resonates with healing, balance, and the importance of self-care, both physically and mentally.
  8. Versatility and Depth: One of the most striking aspects of “The Empress” is her versatility. She touches upon various facets of life, from the material to the spiritual, emphasising the interconnectedness of all things.

“The Empress” is not just a card but a journey into the heart of life’s abundant blessings and challenges. Her meanings, both profound and varied, serve as a testament to the depth and richness of the tarot as a tool for guidance, introspection, and growth.

 

Conclusion

As we draw our exploration of “The Empress” to a close, it becomes evident that this card is more than just an image on a piece of cardstock. It’s a symbol of life’s abundant blessings, challenges, and the nurturing forces that guide us through our journey. From its historical roots to its multifaceted interpretations in various aspects of life, “The Empress” stands as a testament to the depth and richness of the tarot.

Her presence in a reading, whether in love, career, health, or personal growth, offers insights that are both profound and deeply personal. She encourages us to embrace the nurturing energies within and around us, to seek balance in all endeavours, and to trust in the cyclical nature of life.

For those who are new to tarot or seasoned practitioners, “The Empress” offers a world of exploration. Her imagery, rich in symbolism, invites introspection and a deeper understanding of one’s own life journey. Whether you’re seeking guidance, affirmation, or simply a deeper connection to the universe, “The Empress” is a guiding light.

In the ever-evolving dance of life, with its highs and lows, joys and challenges, “The Empress” reminds us of the nurturing forces always at play. She encourages each reader to connect with her energy, to delve deeper into her meanings, and to embrace the abundant blessings she brings.

May your journey with “The Empress” be enlightening, enriching, and filled with discoveries that resonate with your soul.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

1. What is the primary meaning of “The Empress” tarot card?
“The Empress” primarily symbolises nurturing, abundance, fertility, and the essence of motherhood. She embodies growth, creativity, and the natural world.

2. Is “The Empress” a positive card in tarot readings?
Yes, in most contexts, “The Empress” is considered a positive card, indicating growth, prosperity, and nurturing energies. However, like all tarot cards, its interpretation can vary based on its position and surrounding cards in a reading.

3. What does “The Empress” signify in love readings?
In love readings, “The Empress” often signifies deep emotional connections, potential new romances, and the nurturing aspects of a relationship. It can also hint at fertility or a deepening bond in existing relationships.

4. How should I interpret “The Empress” in its reversed position?
When reversed, “The Empress” can indicate areas in life where there may be over-nurturing, dependence, or a lack of growth. It’s a call for balance and introspection.

5. Does “The Empress” have any connection to specific zodiac signs?
While tarot and astrology are distinct systems, “The Empress” is often associated with the planet Venus, which rules both Taurus and Libra. Thus, there can be connections to these zodiac signs in certain interpretations.

6. Can “The Empress” indicate pregnancy?
Yes, given her associations with fertility and motherhood, “The Empress” can sometimes indicate pregnancy or themes related to childbirth and mothering.

7. How does “The Empress” relate to career and financial readings?
In career and financial contexts, “The Empress” suggests growth, abundance, and creativity. She might indicate a flourishing period in one’s career or financial stability.

8. Is “The Empress” only relevant for women in readings?
No, while “The Empress” embodies feminine energies and themes related to motherhood, her meanings regarding nurturing, growth, and creativity are universal and can apply to anyone, regardless of gender.

9. How does “The Empress” differ from other Major Arcana cards in tarot?
While each Major Arcana card has its unique symbolism and meaning, “The Empress” stands out due to her strong associations with nurturing, fertility, and the Earth’s abundance. She embodies the divine feminine, representing both motherly love and the creative forces of the universe.

10. What does “The Empress” suggest in terms of mental and physical health?
In health readings, “The Empress” often indicates healing, rejuvenation, and balance. She can suggest a return to good health, the importance of self-care, or even the need to connect with nature for holistic well-being.

11. Can “The Empress” also represent a person in a tarot reading?
Yes, “The Empress” can sometimes represent a nurturing individual in the querent’s life, often a mother figure or someone who embodies the qualities of care, understanding, and support.

12. How should beginners approach “The Empress” when learning tarot?
Beginners should focus on the card’s primary symbols, such as the crown of stars, the lush surroundings, and the Venus symbol. Reflecting on these symbols and their personal meanings can help newcomers connect more deeply with the card’s essence.

13. Is the imagery of “The Empress” consistent across all tarot decks?

While the core symbolism of nurturing and abundance remains consistent, the specific imagery of “The Empress” can vary across different tarot decks. Each deck may offer a unique artistic interpretation, but the essence of “The Empress” remains intact.

14. How can one connect more deeply with the energy of “The Empress”?
Spending time in nature, engaging in creative activities, practicing self-care, and meditating with the card can help individuals resonate more closely with “The Empress” and her nurturing energy.

15. What’s the best way to interpret “The Empress” in combination with other cards in a spread?
Context is crucial in tarot readings. The cards surrounding “The Empress” can offer additional insights into her meaning. For instance, paired with “The Lovers,” it might emphasize deep emotional connections, while with “The Tower,” it could suggest nurturing oneself through sudden changes.

16. Does “The Empress” have any connection to specific myths or deities?
Yes, “The Empress” often resonates with the energies of mother goddesses from various mythologies, such as Gaia, Isis, and Demeter. Her association with fertility, nurturing, and abundance aligns with these deities’ attributes.

17. How often does “The Empress” appear in typical tarot readings?
The frequency of any card appearing in a tarot reading varies and is influenced by the querent’s energy and the questions posed. However, like all Major Arcana cards, when “The Empress” appears, she brings significant messages.

18. Can “The Empress” indicate challenges despite its positive connotations?
While “The Empress” is generally seen as a positive card, it can also highlight areas where one might be overextending in nurturing others or neglecting self-care. Context and card positioning play a crucial role in interpretation.

19. How does “The Empress” relate to the concept of intuition?
“The Empress” embodies the intuitive and receptive aspects of the feminine. She encourages trusting one’s instincts, especially when it comes to nurturing and creating.

20. Is “The Empress” a good card to meditate on for personal growth?
Absolutely! Meditating on “The Empress” can help individuals connect with their nurturing side, embrace abundance, and foster personal growth and creativity.

21. What are the elemental associations of “The Empress”?
“The Empress” is often associated with the Earth element due to her connections with nature, fertility, and material abundance.

22. Can men resonate with “The Empress” as much as women?
Definitely. While “The Empress” embodies feminine energies, her themes of nurturing, growth, and creativity are universal. Men can connect with her energy to embrace their nurturing side and foster growth in various life aspects.

23. How can one integrate the lessons of “The Empress” into daily life?
Embracing self-care routines, connecting with nature, fostering creativity, and nurturing relationships are practical ways to embody “The Empress” in everyday life.

24. What’s the best way to seek clarity if “The Empress” appears ambiguous in a reading?
Drawing additional clarifying cards, meditating on “The Empress,” or seeking guidance from experienced tarot readers can provide further insights.

25. Are there any crystals or stones that complement the energy of “The Empress”?
Yes, crystals like rose quartz (for love and nurturing), green aventurine (for growth and abundance), and moonstone (for intuition and fertility) can amplify and complement the energies of “The Empress.”

 

Further Reading

For those intrigued by “The Empress” and eager to delve deeper into her symbolism, history, and interpretations, the following resources offer comprehensive insights:

      1. “The Tarot Bible” by Sarah Bartlett:
        • A comprehensive guide that covers the meanings of all tarot cards, with a dedicated section on “The Empress” and her significance in various spreads.
      2. “78 Degrees of Wisdom” by Rachel Pollack:
        • Often considered a seminal work on tarot, this book provides profound insights into the Major and Minor Arcana, including an in-depth exploration of “The Empress.”
      3. “The Empress: The Feminine Force of the Tarot” by Luna Clarke:
        • A dedicated exploration of “The Empress,” this book delves into her historical origins, her representations in different cultures, and her significance in modern tarot readings.
      4. “Tarot and Astrology: Enhance Your Readings with the Wisdom of the Zodiac” by Corrine Kenner:
        • For those interested in the astrological associations of tarot cards, this book offers insights into how “The Empress” connects with Venus and its ruling zodiac signs.
      5. “The Modern Witchcraft Book of Tarot” by Skye Alexander:
        • A contemporary take on tarot, this book provides interpretations of cards for the modern age, including a fresh perspective on “The Empress.”
      6. Online Forums and Communities:
        • Websites like Biddy Tarot, Tarot.com, and the Aeclectic Tarot forum offer a wealth of information, user experiences, and discussions on “The Empress” and other tarot cards.
      7. Tarot Workshops and Courses:
        • For a hands-on experience, consider enrolling in local or online tarot workshops. These often cover card meanings, reading techniques, and offer a deeper understanding of cards like “The Empress.”
      8. The Ultimate Tarot Guide:

Exploring “The Empress” is a journey into the heart of the tarot’s nurturing and creative energies. Whether you’re a novice or a seasoned tarot enthusiast, these resources can offer fresh perspectives and deepen your connection to this powerful card.

 

Share this page:Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on email
Email